Q: MAY ONE PERFORM JUMUAH SALAAH ON A SHIP WHICH IS DOCKED IN THE HARBOUR?
A: No, Jumuah Salaah may not be performed on a ship whether it is docked in the harbour or it is moving on water.
One of the main reasons why Jumuah Salaah is not valid in prisons, on ships, etc. is the the non-fulfilment of the condition of ‘ithne-Aam’ (general permission).
For the validilty of Jumuah, general permission to the Muslim public is necessary. if this condition is lacking, Jumuah is not permissible and not even valid.
Many Muftis have failed to understand what is written in the Kitaabs. They quote a text from Shaami without understanding what is written.
The text simply means that one may ‘lock the door’. The locking of the door (of the fort/prison/ship) or the security is not meant to prevent Musallis. In fact, they even quote the text which says “locking the door of the fort is (to prevent) the enemy, not (to prevent) the Musalli.”
Now look at their misinterpretation of the texts. But people from outside are not at all allowed to perform Jumuah at a prison, nor are they allowed to even enter the ship. Whereas, the locking supposed to be only for security, the locking is instead to debar the general public from entering.
Nobody is arguing about locking the door or security. We are speaking of the general Muslim public being allowed to participate in the Jumuah. Locking the door should not be interpreted as preventing Musallis. The door must be opened for a Musalli, even if it is kept locked. It is Haraam to prevent a Musalli from Jumuah, even if he is not boarding the ship such as a passenger or he is not a prisoner.
If the locking of the prison or the ship’s entrance is just to prevent an enemy or to ensure safety, then why are the Musallis of the general public prohibited from entering? This proves that there is no Ithne Aam (general permission)! Thus, it is not permissible to perform Jumuah on a ship or in prison.