THE IMPERMISSIBILITY OF WOMEN ATTENDING THE MUSAAJID – FOR HANAFIS AND SHAAFIS
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Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said:
“The best Salaat of a woman is her Salaat in the innermost recess of her home.”
Upholding the Prohibition decreed by Hadhrat Umar Ibn Khattaab (radhiyallahu anhu), the Khalifah of the time, Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said:
“If Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) saw what the women have introduced (by way of mischief), he would most certainly prohibit them from the Musjid.”
THE FATWA OF THE HANAFI MATH-HAB
(1) Tabyeenul Haqaaiq, Vol. 1, pages 139 and 140: “They should not attend congregations, i.e. in all Salaats, whether they (the women) are young or old. This is the verdict of the Mutakh-khireen (Fuqaha of the Ahnaaf) because of the rise of fasaad in our times. …….The accepted verdict in our age is prohibition for all (Salaats) because of the change in the times. Precisely for this reason did Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) say: “If Rasulullah had seen of the women what we have seen, then most assuredly he would have forbidden them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Israaeel were prohibited. Women have introduced (in their lives) adornment, perfume and wearing jewellery. It was for this reason that Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) had forbidden them (from attending the Musjid). The changing of the ahkaam because of the changing of the times cannot be denied, e.g. it is permissible to lock the Musjid in our age (whereas originally this was not permissible).”
(2) Mabsoot of Imaam Sarakhsi, Vol. 16, page 37: “Verily, during the time of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and Abu Bakr (radhiyallahu anhu) women used to attend jama-aat (for Salaat). However, Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) prohibited this, and he was correct (in so doing).”
(3) Al-Ikhtiyaar Ta’leelil Mukhtaar, Vol. 1, page 139: “During our times nothing of it (i.e. whether the women attending the Musjid are young or old) is permissible because of the fasaad of the times and the rampancy of immorality.”
(4) An-Nihaayah: “Our Fuqaha base the prohibition of women attending the Musjid on the prohibition declared by Hadhrat Umar Ibn Khattaab (radhiyallahu anhu). When he discerned the fitnah (mischief) which women had initiated, he forbade their emergence.”
(5) Allaamah Aini (rahmatullah alayh) of the 8th century says: “If Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) could observe the innovations and evils which the women of this age (i.e. the 8th century of Islam) have introduced, her rejection (of women attending the Musjid), would be more vehement. The interval between the era of Aishah’s rejection and Rasulullah’s time is very little. The wrongs which the women during the time of Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) had introduced were insignificant compared to the evils which they have introduced during this age (i.e. the 8th century).”
(6) Al-Muheetul Burhaani: “The Ruling is prohibition for all Salaats because of the spread of fitnah of the age.”
(7) Al-Jauharah: “The verdict (Fatwa) today is prohibition of women’s presence (in the Musjid) for all Salaat because of the prevalence of mischief.”
(8) Munazzal: “The Fatwa today is that it is forbidden for women to attend the Musjid for all Salaats because of the appearance of fitnah.”
(9) Al-Kifaayah: “The Fatwa today is prohibition of females attending (the Musjid) for all Salaats because of the spread of fitnah.”
(10) Mufti Kifaayatullah states in his treatise, The Prohibition of Women Attending Gatherings and Public Lectures: “The Ruling of our Companions is that which the author of Badaius Sanaai has said. In this there is a consensus of opinion that a woman cannot attend Eid or Jumuah Salaat. In fact, she is prohibited from attending any/all Salaat (in the Musjid). This ruling is based on the Qur’aanic aayat: ‘And remain resolutely in your homes…’. The emergence of women from their homes is a cause of fitnah.” It is further stated in Badaai: ‘Women are not allowed to attend Salaat with Jamaat. The proof is in the narration of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) wherein he prohibited women from emerging from their homes.”
(11) Fataawa Alamghiri, Vol. 1, page 93: “The Fatwa of these times is that it is impermissible for women to attend (the Musjid) for any Salaat because this is an era of social decay and fitnah.”
(12) Bahrur Raa-iq, Vol. 1, page 380: “Women should not attend the Jamaat (Salaat) in view of the aayat: “And remain resolutely in your homes…’ and the Hadith of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) that the Salaat of a woman in the innermost corner of her home is better than her Salaat in the courtyard of her house, and her Salaat in the courtyard of her house is better than her Salaat in the Musjid, and her home is better for her than the Musjid. The author of Kanzud Daqaaiq has mentioned in Kaafi that the Fatwa of this era is impermissibility for women to attend any/all Salaat (in the Musjid) because of the prevalence of immorality.”
(13) Allaamah Badruddin Aini states in Sharah Kanz: “Women, be they young or old, are prohibited from attending the Musjid for Jamaat Salaat because this is an era of social decay and immorality.”
(14) Ad-Durrul Mukhtaar, Vol. 1, page 397: “It is not permissible for women to attend Salaat in congregation, whether it be Jumuah or Eid or a lecture, even if she is old and even if it is night time. This is the final ruling on this issue. Due to the state of immorality, this ruling has been given.”
All the kutub of the Hanafi Math-hab register a firm, resolute uncompromising prohibition on women attending the Musjid for Salaat or for lectures in this era of fitnah and fasaad – evil and immorality of men and women. The Prohibition is based on the Dalaa-il of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. Only morons and immoral liberals of this age deny this irrefutable reality of the Shariah.
THE SHAAFI’ MATH-HAB
It will be prudent to state the Shaafi’ view as well. Miscreants and morons have an evil habit of misleading people by ascribing falsities to the Shaafi’ Math-hab. The Shaafi’ Fuqaha are just as vehement and resolute in prohibiting women from the Musjid as the Hanafi Fuqaha.
(1) I’aanatut Taalibeen, Vol. 2, page 5: “Yes, it is Makrooh (i.e. forbidden) for women of adornment to attend the Musjid with males because of the Hadith in Bukhaari and Muslim narrated from Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) who said: ‘If Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had to see what women have initiated (today), then most certainly he would prohibit them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Israaeel were prohibited.” And this prohibition is on account of the fitnah in it (in their emergence from their homes to attend the Musjid).
The text of Sharh states: ‘It is Makrooh (reprehensible and forbidden) for a woman to attend Jamaat of the Musjid if she is young even if she dons shabby (unattractive/old) garments, and even if she is not young, but with her there is something of beauty or the fragrance of perfume.’ And it is the duty of the Imaam or his representatives to prevent them (from the Musjid).”
(2) Al-Iqnaa li Shurabeeni, Vol. 1, page 164: “It is Makrooh for the women of beauty (adornment) to attend (the Musjid) with males because of the Hadith of Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrated in Bukhaari and Muslim…………..”
(3) Al-Majmoo’, Vol. 4, page 172: “When a young woman or even an old women who can be a cause of lust, intends to attend the Musjid, it is Makrooh for her. It is also Makrooh for her husband or wali to allow her (to attend the Musjid).
If it is such an old woman who is not desirable (i.e. she is not a cause of lust for others) and if there is no mafsadah (fitnah/mischief) either for her or for others, then it is preferable for the husband to allow her if she seeks permission. But if he refuses (to give permission) then it is not haraam for him (to refuse).”
(4) Al-Majmoo’, Vol. 5, Page 13: Explaining the prohibition, it is said: “ …..and because the fitnah and the ways of evil in these times are abundant contrary to the initial era (of Islam).”
(5) Kifaayatul Akhyaar, Vol. 1, page 149: “If Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had to see what women have introduced, he would most certainly prohibit them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Israaeel were prohibited.’ This then is the Fatwa of Ummul Mu’mineen in the best of ages. Then what should be (the fatwa) in this corrupt time of ours? Verily many others (Fuqaha) besides Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) had also prohibited women from attending the Musjid – others, e.g. Urwah Bin Zubair (radhiyallahu anhu), Qaasim, Yahya Ansaari and Maalik… And this (difference of opinion regarding women’s attendance) applied to that (early) age. But during this era of ours, not a single Muslim will hesitate to prohibit women except a ghabi (an ignoramus/moron whose brains are dense) who lacks understanding of the deeper wisdom of the Shariah. He seeks proof from the zaahiri daleel (i.e. he looks at only the text/the words) without understanding its meaning………….The correct version is resolutely Tahreem (i.e. it is haraam for women to attend the Musjid). And the Fatwa is according to it.”
(6) Haashiyataan, Vol. 1, page 222: “…..the likes of young women of adornment or old perfumed women, and it is haraam for a married woman to go to (the Musjid) without the permission of her husband, and it is haraam for him to permit her because of fitnah from her or on her.”
(7) Bujairmi alal Khateeb, Vol. 2, page 107: “Women should not attend Jamaat (in the Musjid) whether they are young or old because of the spread of fasaad (evil, immorality). …..The fatwa today is on prohibition for all…..This includes (the daily) Jamaat Salaat, Eid, Istisqaa and gatherings of lectures, especially the lecture programmes of the juhhaal (the cardboard muftis and paper molvis) who masquerade as Ulama whilst their motive is carnal lust.”
THE ‘FATWA’ OF MORONS
In the Shaafi’ kitaab, Kifaayatul Akhyaar, Vol.1, page 149, the opinion of morons is vehemently criticized. The author, Ibn Hajar Haitami (rahmatullah alayh) citing the famous Hadith of Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) which constitutes a fundamental basis for the decree of Prohibition, states:
“If Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had seen what women have introduced, then most assuredly he would prohibit them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Israaeel were prohibited.” (Then he comments): ‘This, then is the fatwa of Ummul Mu’mineen during Khairul Quroon (the Best of Ages – the Age of the Sahaabah). Then what should it be during this corrupt age of ours? (i.e. many centuries after Khairul Quroon with immorality on the ascendancy). Others besides Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) too have stated the prohibition of women attending the Musjid.
Among them are Urwah Bin Zubair (radhiyallahu anhu), Qaasim, Yahya Ansaari, Maalik, and Abu Hanifah once, then at another time he gave permission (for old women during Fajr, Maghrib and Isha). Similarly, Abu Yusuf prohibited it. This (prohibition) with some differences applied to that age (the Khairul Quroon). However, with regard to our age (i.e. the 8/9th century), no one among the Muslimeen will hesitate in (the fatwa) of prohibiting women, except a moron lacking in the understanding of the subtleties of the Shariah. Verily he (the moron) argues (and seeks proof) with the literal text and he applies it literally without understanding its meaning and without taking into account the wisdom (and understanding) of Aishah (radhiyallahu anha). …..And, the Fatwa is on this (i.e. prohibition). And Allah knows best.”
Ibn Hajar Haitami (rahmatullah alayh) has made it abundantly clear that only a moron – a person with a dense brain whose intellectual channels are clogged with stupidity – looks at the text and simply ascribes to it a literal effect in terms of the apparent meaning. He is blind to the many factors and circumstances which fetter the text of the Hadith. The density of his brain precludes the moron from understanding the Fatwa of Wisdom issued by Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) and the wisdom of Hadhrat Umar’s prohibition, and the verdicts of the Mutakh-khireen Fuqaha of all Math-habs.
Ibn Hajar states in his famed Al-Fataawal Kubral Fiqhiyah, Vol. 1, page 204, which we reproduce here for the benefit of all:
Translation: “It is appropriate in our age (i.e. the 8th century) to categorically decree haraam the emergence of young and adorned women because of the abundance of fasaad (mischief/vice/immorality). The factor which made lawful (female) emergence during the Khairul Quroon (the age of Rasulullah – sallallahu alayhi wasallam), the Sahaabah and Taabieen) has most certainly disappeared, and also has disappeared (what is mentioned in the Qur’aanic verse): ‘They (women) should not reveal their beauty and they should lower their gaze.” And, similarly is it with the men. The evils of female emergence now is categorical. Then there has been mentioned what Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said (regarding prohibition of women attending the Musjid)……….And, no one will hesitate in prohibiting women (from the Musjid and emerging from the home in general) except a ghabi who is a jaahil, and who lacks ability in understanding the subtleties of the Shariah …………The correct verdict is categorical Tahreem (i.e. haraam for women to come to the Musjid), and this is the Fatwa. And, this in a nutshell is our (Shaafi’ Math-hab).”
Thus, according to Hadhrat Ibn Hajar Haitami Shaafi’ (rahmatullah alayh) and according to all the Fuqaha of all the Math-habs, the one who calls for women to attend the Musjid, especially in this immoral, libertine age of zina, fisq and fujoor, is a ghabi, a jaahil, one who is dim and dense in the brains and due to these intellectual maladies is unable to understand the deeper meanings of the Shariah.
THE INITIAL PERMISSIBILITY AND THE ULTIMATE PROHIBITION
A Clinching Ruling of the Shaafi’ Math-hab
Ibn Hajar Haitami (rahmatullah alayh), the eighth century authority of the Shaafi’ Math-hab has elaborately presented this Prohibition in Al-Fataawal Fiqhiyatul Kubra. He has argued the case from all angles, and has resolutely confirmed the prohibition for all categories of women on account of the confirmed fitnah. The pandemic of fitnah has been incremental and there is no hope of it receding. Extracts from his lengthy detailed elaboration are as follows:
“With regard to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam): “Do not prevent the female servants of Allah from the Musjid”, and similar other Ahaadith on this topic, it is obvious that this permission is regulated by conditions which the Ulama have explained. These conditions have been obtained from the Ahaadith. They are: The woman must not be perfumed nor adorned with jewels which make sounds. Her garments should not be attractive. There should be no mingling with males. The woman should not be young or like a young woman who can be a cause of fitnah. There should be no fear of mischief in the road. ……..If even one of these conditions is lacking, then she will be prohibited (from going to the Musjid or anywhere else).
The condition for permissibility of emerging is the non-existence of fitnah and this is obvious. When emergence is haraam (because of fitnah), then prohibiting (women) is Waajib (on the husband or the guardian).
Furthermore, the statement of Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) reinforces prohibition, for she said: ‘If Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had seen what the women have introduced, he would prohibit them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Israaeel were prohibited.’
What she (Hadhrat Aishah- radhiyallahu anha) had deducted is supported by the statement of Imaam Maalik (rahmatullah alayh), viz., ‘The fataawa (verdicts) for people will be in accordance with the immorality which they have introduced.’ The meaning of Imaam Maalik’s statement is what Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) had intended. In other words, if a person introduces such an act for which the Principles of the Shariah dictate a decree other than the decree which had existed before the innovation, then a new decree will be applied according to what has been introduced, not in accordance with what had existed prior to the introduction. ………..
This is supported by her Hadith narrated by Ibn Maajah: ‘While Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) was seated in the Musjid an adorned woman entered the Musjid walking proudly showing off her beauty in the Musjid. Then said Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam): ‘O people! Forbid your women from wearing garments of beauty and from pride in the Musjid, for verily, Bani Israaeel were cursed when their women dressed beautifully and swaggered in the Musaajid.’
When a woman emerges only in this manner, she shall be prevented. …… (The prohibition) is further supported by the statement of Ghazaali in Al-Ihya. He said: ‘It is Waajib to prohibit women from attending the Musaajid for Salaat, for gatherings of knowledge and thikr when there is fear of fitnah, for verily Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) had prohibited them. It was then said to her: ‘Verily, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) did not prohibit women from jamaa-aat (gatherings in the Musjid).’ She then said: ‘If Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had known what the women have introduced after him, he would most certainly have prohibited them.’
The statement of Ibn Khuzaimah who is among our Akaabir (senior) Ashaab supports this: ‘The Salaat of a woman in her home is superior to her Salaat in the Musjid of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) despite it being equal to a thousand Salaat. This means the Salaat of men, not of women. Therefore, when it (her Salaat in her home) is superior (than even 1000 Salaat of men who perform in Musjid Nabawi), then the motive which brings her out of the home is either riya (show) or pride, and this is haraam.
Among the worst evils is the mingling of the ignoramuses among the masses. Men with their wives with exposed faces mix with other men during Tawaaf. Also among the evils is what the women of Makkah and others do when they intend to perform Tawaaf and enter the Musjid. They adorn themselves and use very strong perfume which can be smelt from a distance. With this they distract the attention of the people, and this constitutes a cause for attracting gazes towards them, leading to different kinds of moral corruption. We supplicate to Allah to guide the rulers to eradicate these evils, Aameen! Now ponder! You will find the situation categorically demanding prohibition even with regards to Tawaaf when women perpetrate acts leading to fitnah. Thus, this situation further supports what she (Hadhrat Aishah –radhiyallahu anha) had said earlier. ………. (In view of the appalling moral decadence) how can prohibiting her not be incumbent……..and how can it be said that emergence (from the home) is permissible for her. This cannot be in the Shariah.
Among the haraam acts is their (women’s) brushing against men in the Musjid and the road. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “It is better for a man to brush against a mud-soiled pig than his shoulders brushing against a woman who is not lawful for him.” Narrated by Tabaraani. ….. Therefore if you say: ‘What, do you prohibit women from the Musaajid, places of Eid Salaat and visiting the quboor besides the Qabar of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam)? My response is: ‘How is it possible for me not to say so when there is consensus on this (prohibition) because of the non-existence of the conditions of permissibility for khurooj (i.e. emergence from the home to attend the Musjid, etc.). And that (the conditions for permissibility) during the age of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) were piety and moral purity.’
Among the Mutaqaddimeen, the two noble and illustrious Shaikhs and Imaams: Shaikh Taqiuddeen Al-Haseeni and our Shaikh Alaauddeen Muhammad Bin Muhammad Bin Muhammad Al-Najjaari –May Allah cover them with His mercy – have (also) stated this (as explained above). That which both these illustrious Shaikhs have stated is adequate for a person who abandons his desire. Some have inferred that the view of Tahreem (i.e. haraam for women to attend the Musjid) and the claim of consensus on prohibition are in conflict with the (Shaafi’) Math-hab. But it is not so. On the basis of what I explain from the kutub of the Math-hab, etc. their purpose is clarified, and it explains that there is no conflict (with the Math-hab) in what they have said.
That which they (the two illustrious Shaikhs) have said is that, verily, the Fatwa in this age is the prohibition of women’s emergence (from their homes to attend the Musjid, etc.). None, but a moron subservient to his base desires will hesitate in this (i.e. in accepting that it is prohibited for women), for verily, the ahkaam change with the changing of the people of the age. This is the correct version according to the Ulama of the Salf and Khalf of the Math-habs.
Tahaawi said that the command for their emergence was in the initial period of Islam so that the Muslims may appear large in number in the eyes of the enemies. It is mentioned in Sharh Ibn Daqeequl Eid: ‘Verily, in that time (the initial period of Islam) the people of Islam were in numerical inferiority, hence there was a need to emphasize the emergence of women and (even) the females of khudoor (young girls who remain within their homes). ….. It is mentioned in Musannaf of Ibnul Attaar that going to the Musjid in the darkness at the time of safety from harm and fitnah, was permitted during the era of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) and for a while during the time of the Sahaabah. Thereafter this (emergence from the homes to go to the Musjid) was prohibited because of the (fitnah) which women had introduced such as adornment, perfume, and their mischief with men. Then he (the Author of Musannaf) mentioned the Hadith of Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) in which appears the prohibition of females. ……………It is appropriate (i.e. necessary) for a man not to aid his wife or any woman under his jurisdiction to emerge from her home. ………. This (i.e. their attending the Musjid in the initial period of Islam) has been prohibited for other eras because in their attendance there are many acts of haraam corruption.
And, he (i.e. Imaam Ghazaali) said in Al-Ihya: ‘It is Waajib to prohibit women from attending the Musaajid for Salaat and gatherings of thikr when there is fear of fitnah. These then are the different views of the Ulama according to the changing times.
When there is the incidence of fitnah, then (their attendance) is haraam without any doubt. The meaning of fitnah is zina and its introductory steps such as looking (at females), privacy with them, touching, etc.
At the time of the prevalence of haraam acts, the correct view is absolute haraam, and a Faqeeh does not hesitate in this (i.e. in issuing the fatwa of haraam). ………………….The correct version is that the Fatwa is absolute prohibition.” (Al-Fataawal Fiqhiyatul Kubra)
It is significant that Ibn Hajar Haitami (rahmatullah alayh) has branded the rejecter of prohibition a moron (ghabi). Only morons attempt to utilize their corrupted intelligence to cancel ahkaam of the Shariah which have existed since the earliest age of Islam and which all the Authorities have confirmed.
The differences of the early Fuqaha are restricted to ‘old women’ – old grandmothers – who are beyond the age of marriage and who do not constitute fitnah for even old men. This is clearly stated in the kutub of the Shariah. As far as young, middle-aged and such old women who flaunt beauty and adornment or exercise an attraction are concerned, there is consensus of the Fuqaha of all Math-habs that it is not permissible for them to attend the Musjid. However, the moron deceptively labours to confuse people with this slight difference. After the Khairul Quroon era, the prohibition was extended to even old women because of the fitnah of the times – the fitnah of the women and the fitnah of the men.
As far as the present age – the 15th Islamic century/the 21st century of the Christian era – is concerned, immorality is total. Moral depravity, shamelessness, lewdness, abandonment of hijaab, etc. are the order of the day. Under no circumstances will it ever be permissible for women to attend the Musjid in these times. The position is worse in the Haramain Shareefain. The rulers being immoral are permitting the perpetration of immorality and fitnah right inside the sacred precincts of the Holy Musaajid. The evil is appalling, particularly during Tawaaf. The authorities have grossly failed in their obligation of maintaining strict segregation and separation of Tawaaf times for the sexes.